The Role of Intermediaries in Community Capacity Building: Pro-Poor Tourism Perspective

Hiroaki Saito


A growing recognition that tourism is a feasible strategy for poverty alleviation explains why pro-poor tourism (ppt) has gained increased attention. While many developing nations have benefited from the positive effects that ppt brings to their local economies, many communities are left behind due to their lack of capacity to conduct tourism activities. To develop local communities and introduce ppt, top-down (td) and bottom-up (bu) approaches have often been adopted; however, these approaches cannot yield expected outcomes without strong stakeholder intermediaries who play a crucial role in overcoming key challenges inherited in community capacity building. This study examines the roles of four types of stakeholder intermediaries commonly discussed in community capacity building. Based on their roles and limitations, the study presents a framework that proposes a context in which each type of stakeholder intermediary contributes prominently to successful community capacity building. The study provides valuable insights into how scholars and practitioners can consider the selection and application of different types of stakeholder intermediaries in community capacity building for the successful adaptation of ppt.

Keywords: stakeholder intermediary, capacity building, local community,
pro-poor tourism

Full Text:



ADB. (2007). Greater Mekong Subregion: Development effectiveness brief. Retrieved February 19, 2016, from

African Pro-poor Tourism Development Centre. (2006). What is pro-poor tourism? Retrieved February 19, 2016, from

Alam, M, Furukawa, Y, & Akter, S. (2010). Forest-based tourism in Bangladesh: Status, problems, and prospects. An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 5(1), 163-172.

Altieri, M, & Masera, O. (1993). Sustainable rural development in Latin America: Building from the bottom-up. Ecological Economics, 7(2), 93-121.

Ansell, C, & Gash, A. (2007). Collaborative governance in theory and practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(4), 543-571.

Aref, F. (2010). Community capacity as an approach for sustainable tourism. e-Review of Tourism Research, 8(2), 30-40.

Aref, F, Redzuan, M, Emby, Z, & Gill, SS. (2009). Barriers of tourism industry through community capacity building. International Review of Business Research Papers, 5(4), 399-408.

Ashley, C (2006). Facilitating pro-poor tourism with the private sector. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from

Ashley, C, Brine, P, Lehr, A, & Wilde, H. (2007). The role of tourism sector in expanding economic opportunity. Retrieved 17 April, 2011, from Tourism Final.pdf

Ashley, C, & Roe, D. (2002). Making tourism work for the poor: Strategies and challenges in South Africa. Development Southern Africa, 19(1), 61-82.

Ashley, C, Roe, D, & Goodwin, H. (2001). Pro-poor tourism strategies: Making tourism work for the poor: A review of experience. Retrieved April 14, 2015, from

Ashley, Caroline, & Elliott, J. (2003). 'Just wildlife' or a source of local development. Retrieved April 17, 2015, from

Bierschenk, T, Chauveau, JP, & Sardan, JP. (2002). Local development brokers in Africa: The rise of a new social category. Retrieved May 9, 2015, from

Bjork, P, & Virtanen, H. (2005). What tourism project managers need to know about co-operation facilitators. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 5(3), 212-230.

Bond, P. (2006). Global governance campaigning and MDGs: From top-down to bottom-up anti-poverty work. Third World Quarterly, 27(2), 339-354.

Botes, L, & Rensburg, D. (2000). Community participation in development: Nine plagues and twelve commandments. Oxford University Press and Community Development Journal, 35(1), 41-58.

Bush, R, Dower, J, & Mutch, A. (2002). The community capacity index: Centre for Primary Health Care, The University of Queensland.

Chapman, M, & Kirk, K. (2001). Lessons for community capacity building: A summary of research evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from

Chok, S , Macbeth, J, & Warren, C. (2007). Tourism as a tool for poverty alleviation: A critical analysis of ‘pro-poor tourism’ and implications for sustainability. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2-3), 144-165.

Cohen, Erik. (1985). The tourist guide : The origins, structure and dynamics of a role. Annals of Tourism Research, 12(1), 5-29.

Cole, S. (2007). Entrepreneurship and empowerment: Considering the barriers - a case study from indonesia. Tourism, 55(4), 461-473.

Cooper, C. (2006). Knowledge management and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(1), 47-64.

Dimock, H. (1992). Intervention and empowerment: Helping organizations to change. Concord, Ontario: Captus Press Inc.

Dunn, S. (2007). Toward empowerment: Women and community-based tourism in Thailand. Retrieved May 3, 2015, from

Finn, J, & Checkoway, B. (1998). Young people as competent community builders: A challenge to social work. Social Work, 43(4), 335-345.

Forstner, K. (2004). Community ventures and access to markets: The role of intermediaries in marketing rural tourism products. Development Policy Review, 22(5), 497-514.

Franch, Mariangela, Martini, Umberto, & Buffa, Federica. (2010). Roles and Opinions of Primary and Secondary Stakeholders within Community-type Destinations. Tourism Review, 65(4), 74-86.

Geddes, M. (2005). Neoliberalism and local governance -cross-natural perspectives and speculations. Policy Studies, 26(3), 359-377.

Goodwin, H. (2008). Tourism, local economic development, and poverty reduction. Applied Research in Economic Development, 5(3), 55-64.

Harrison, D, & Schipani, S. (2007). Lao tourism and poverty alleviation: Community-based tourism and the private sector. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2-3), 194-230. Worldwide Legal Directories. (2011). Mediation definition. Retrieved May 15, 2015, from

Higgs, J, Jones, M, Loftus, S, & Christensen, N. (2008). Clinical reasoning in the health professions (3rd ed.). Edinburgh, New York: Elsevier.

Howard, J. (2005). Knowledge exchange networks in Australia’s innovation system: Overview and strategic analysis. Retrieved May 15, 2015, from

Howard Partners. (2007). Study of role of intermediaries in support of innovation. Retrieved May 17, 2015, from

Inter American Development Bank. (2010). Cluster best practices for the Caribbean. Retrieved April 7, 2015, from

International Labour Office. (2008). Working paper: Guide for social dialogue in the tourism industry. Retrieved March 13, 2015, from

Jamal, T. (2004). Conflict in natural area destinations: A critique of representation and ‘interest’ in participatory processes. Tourism Geographies, 6(3), 352-379.

Jamal, T, & Stronza, A. (2009). Collaboration theory and tourism practice in protected areas: Stakeholders, structuring and sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(2), 169-189.

James Cook University. (2011). Definitions: Roles and responsibilities and in aboriginal and torres strait islander research. Retrieved May 17, 2015, from

Jennings, G, & Nickerson, N. (2005). Quality tourism experiences. Amsterdam, Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.

Jennings, G, & Weiler, B. (2004). Mediating meaning: Perspectives on brokering quality tourist experiences. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from

Kaner, S, Lind, L, Toldi, C, Fisk, S, & Berger, D. (2007). Facilitator's guide to participatory decision-making (2nd ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.

Khadka, D, & Nepal, S. (2010). Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal. Environmental Management, 45(2), 351-362.

King, K, Smith, A, & Frank, F. (2000). The partnership facilitator's guide. Retrieved May 6, 2015, from

Leach, S, & Wilson, D. (2002). Rethinking local political leadership. Public Administration, 80(4), 665-689.

Liburd, J, & Edwards, D. (2010). Understanding the sustainable development of tourism. Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers.

Mahony, K, & Zyl, JV. (2001). Practical strategies for pro-poor tourism: Case studies of Makuleke and Manyeleti tourism initiatives. Retrieved May 14, 2015, from

McCool, S, & Moisey, R. (2008). Tourism, recreation, and sustainability: Linking culture and the environment (2nd ed.). Wallingford: CABI.

McGuire, M, Rubin, B, Agranoff, R, & Richards, C. (1994). Building development capacity in nonmetropolitan communities. Public Administration Review, 54(5), 426-433.

Michie, M. (2003). The role of culture brokers in intercultural science education: A research proposal. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from - _ftn2

Mitchell, J, Keane, J, & Laidlaw, J. (2009). Making success work for the poor: Package tourism in northern Tanzania. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from

Monypenny, R. (2008). Capacity building through cooperation. In G. Moscardo (Ed.), Building community capacity for tourism development (pp. 155-171). Cambridge: CABI.

Moscardo, G. (2008). Building community capacity for tourism development. Wallingford, UK: CABI publication.

Murphy, C, Neheta-Manungo, D, & Mwilima, E. (2007). Who will benefit from tourism and wildlife management?: Conflict management in Salambala conservancy, Namibia Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Nash, D. (1981). Tourism as an anthropological subject. Current Anthropology, 22(5), 461-481.

Neto, F. (2003). A new approach to sustainable tourism development: Moving beyond environmental protection. Natural Resources Forum, 72(3), 212-222.

Neubert, D. (1996). The role of local brokers in the development system: Experiences with "self-help projects" in East Africa. Retrieved May 5, 2015, from

Overseas Development Institute. (2004). PPT facilitation at wilderness safaris' rocktail bay site: Analysis and progress in 2003. Retrieved May 17, 2015, from

Poultney, C, & Spenceley, A. (2001). Practical strategies for pro-poor tourism, wilderness safaris South Africa: Rocktail bay and Ndumu lodge. Retrieved May 22, 2015, from

PPT Partnership. (1999). Sustainable tourism and poverty elimination study. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from

PPT Partnership. (2004). Importance of tourism in the poorest countries. Retrieved May 10, 2015, from info sheet.pdf

Ramsden, V, Osborne, C, Turner, S, & White, H. (2007). Guiding facilitation in the Canadian context. Retrieved May 18, 2015, from

Sabatier, P. (1986). Top-down and bottom-up approaches to implemtation research: A critical analysis and suggested synthesis. Journal of Public Policy, 6(1), 21-48.

Sarkar, S, & George, B. (2010). Peace through alternative tourism: Case studies from bengal, india. The Journal of Tourism and Peace Research, 1(1), 27-41.

Selman, P. (2004). Community participation in the planning and management of cultural landscapes. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 47(3), 365-392.

Shatkin, G. (2004). Globalization and local leadership: Growth, power and politics in Thailand's eastern seaboard. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(1), 11-26.

Shikida, A, Yoda, M, Kino, A, & Morishige, M. (2010). Tourism relationship model and intermediary for sustainable tourism management: Case study of the Kiritappu wetland trust in Hamanaka, Hokkaido. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(2), 105-115.

Shimakawa, T. (2008). 観光につける薬 (=Medicine for tourism): Sustainable tourism theory (2nd ed.). Tokyo: Doyukan.

SNV East & Southern Afica Region. (2007). Tourism and development. Retrieved May 5, 2015, from Publications/Tourism and Deveopment - agendas for action.pdf

Sofield, T, Lacy, TD , Lipman, G, & Daugherty, S. (2004). Sustainable tourism: Eliminating poverty (ST-EP). Retrieved March 10, 2015, from

Spenceley, A, & Goodwin, H. (2007). Nature-based tourism and poverty alleviation. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2-3), 255-277.

Swyngedouw, E. (2004). Globalisation or 'glocalisation'? networks, territories and rescaling. Cambrdge Review of International Affairs, 17(1), 25-48.

The World Bank. (2002). Empowerment and poverty reduction: A sourcebook. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from

Theerapappisit, P. (2009). Pro-poor ethnic tourism in the Mekong: A study of three approaches in northern Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 14(2), 201-221.

Tosun, C. (2006). Expected nature of community participation in tourism development. Tourism Management, 27(3), 493-504.

United Nations. (2006). Definition of basic concepts and terminologies in governance and public administration. Retrieved May 15, 2015, from

United Nations Environment Programme. (2009). Sustainable costal tourism: An integrated planning and management approach. Retrieved May 2, 2015, from

Wang, Y, & Wall, G. (2007). Administrative arrangements and displacement compensation in top-down tourism planning—a case from Hainan province, China. Tourism Management, 28(1), 70-82.

Warner, M. (2000). Conflict management in community-based natural resource projects: Experiences from Fiji and Papua New Guinea. Retrieved May 6, 2015, from

Wearing, S, & McDonald, M. (2002). The development of community-based tourism: Re-thinking the relationship between tour operators and development agents as intermediaries in rural and isolated area communities. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 10(3), 191-206.

Zeppel, H. (2009). Managing cultural values in sustainable tourism: Conflicts in protected areas. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(2), 93-104.

Zhao, W, & Ritchie, B. (2007). Tourism and poverty alleviation: An integrative research framework. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2-3), 119-143.

Zorn, E, & Farthing, L. (2007). Communitarian tourism hosts and mediators in Peru. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(3), 673-689.


  • There are currently no refbacks.