Understanding a Conceptual Framework of Spa Service Quality: An Overview Approach
Due to the inadequate literature for fully understanding service quality in the spa industry, this article has the objective to review the related literature to obtain a conceptual understanding of a spa service quality framework. The method is based on a systematic review of related literature by analysing service models/dimensions from past studies and integrating them to obtain a comprehensive framework of spa service quality. Based on the proposed framework, the four themes (dimensions) of spa service quality are identified: (1) spa programmes and products, (2) physical environment, (3) customer-employee interaction, and (4) service outcome. The overview suggests that using a single service model is insufficient to fully understand the spa service quality framework because of its distinct characteristics. The findings can help researchers and spa practitioners to thoroughly understand the overall framework of spa service quality. In particular, the combination of physical environment (technology-based equipment) and better customer-employee interaction can contribute to service innovation for the spa industry. The overview helps to extend the theoretical knowledge (framework) of the traditional SERQVUAL and three-dimensional models (physical, interaction and outcome quality) by adding the product dimension as an additional component of the spa service quality framework.
Keywords: spa service quality, spa industry, spa services, wellness tourism
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