Evaluating the Direct and Indirect Impacts of Tourism on the Health of Local Communities

Maksim Godovykh, Alan Fyall, Jorge Ridderstaat


Tourism brings with it both positive and negative health impacts on local communities. Although the topic of health in tourism is traditionally associated with tourists’ health, there are potential opportunities to study the influence of tourism on residents’ health as well. This study aims at exploring the direct and indirect effects of tourism development on residents’ health through income and environmental pollution in the case of several European countries. The long-term and short-term relationships among tourism arrivals, emissions, residents’ income, and health were estimated using a generalized least squares (gls) approach. The results demonstrate that tourism arrivals bring significant short-term and long-term impacts on residents’ health directly and indirectly through environmental pollution and residents’ income. Several important theoretical and practical implications are related to considering the long-term health impacts as more important outcomes of tourism development and providing recommendations for destination management organizations and governmental authorities.

Keywords: tourism, impacts, health, well-being, income, emissions

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