Cultural Tourism from an Academic Perspective


  • Tina Orel Frank
  • Zorana Medaric


Cultural tourism is a rather new term that has been much discussed in  recent years. Despitemany empirical surveys dealing with the notion of cultural tourism, its definition remains elusive. The objective of this research is to investigate the presumably abundant differentiating experts’ views on howto define cultural tourismaswell as to spot the appearing ‘subgroups’ that the theory classifies as being subtypes of cultural tourism. To reach this objective, recently published scientific papers will be explored in terms of extracting experts’ perspective on defining cultural tourism. The paper aims at finding similarities as well as discrepancies among the obtained definitions. It also focuses on extracting authors’ views on what subgroup types could still be defined as a part of cultural tourism.

Keywords: cultural tourism, definition analysis, subtypes of cultural tourism



Ap, J. (1999). Arts/cultural tourism (Position paper prepared for the Arts/Cultural Tourism Working Group). Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Barber, B. L. (2018). Heritage tours and trails on foot in Hong Kong: Towards a typology that crosses the tourist local divide. Journal of Heritage Tourism. Retrieved from 10.1080/1743873X.2018.1510937

Bennett, T. (2015). Cultural studies and the culture concept. Cultural Studies, 29(4), 546–568.

Bin Salim, M. A., Ibrahim, N. A. B., & Hassan, H. (2012). Language for tourism: A review of literature. Procedia: Social and Behavioural Sciences, 66, 136–143.

Blackwell,C. (1997). Tourism and cultural tourism: Some basic facts. Preservation Issues 7 (3). Retrieved from http://www.umls. edu/services/library/blackstudies/culttour.htm

Bonink, C. A. M. (1992). Cultural tourism development and government policy (Unpublished ma dissertation). Rijksuniversiteit, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Camarero, C., José Garrido, M., & Vicente, E. (2018). Does it pay off for museums to foster creativity? The complementary effect of innovative visitor experiences. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. Retrieved from 2018.1497567

Chen, H., & Rahman, I. (2018). An analysis of engagement, cultural contact, memorable tourism experience and destination loyalty. Tourism Management Perspectives, 26, 153–163.

Chen Y. C., King, B., & Lee,H.-W. (2018). Experiencing the destination brand: Behavioural intentions of arts festival tourists. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 10, 61–67.

Chianeh, R. H., Del Chiappa, G., & Ghasemi, V. (2018). Cultural and religious tourism development in Iran: prospects and challenges. Anatolia, 29(2), 204–214.

Chiao, H. M., Chen, Y. L., & Huang, W. H. (2018). Examining the usability of an online virtual tour-guiding platform for cultural tourism education. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 23, 29–38.

Dreyer, A. (2000). Der Markt für Kulturtourismus. In A. Dreyer (Ed.), Kulturtourismus (pp. 25–48). München, Germany: Oldenbourg.

Dolničar, S. (2002). A review of data-drivenmarket segmen-tation in tourism. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 12(1), 1–22.

Domínguez-Quintero, A. M., González-Rodríguez, M. R., & Paddison, B. (2018) The mediating role of experience quality on authenticity and satisfaction in the context of cultural-heritage tourism. Current Issues in Tourism. Retrieved from 13683500.2018.1502261

Fu, Y., Gao, Y., & Chai, L. (2014). Development status and strategic choice of cultural tourism industry. Contemporary Economics, 24, 25–27.

Gilbert, D. C. (1990). Conceptual issues in the meaning of tourism. In C. P. Cooper (Ed.), Progress in tourism, recreation and management (pp. 4–27). London, England: Belhaven.

Gyimóthy, S. (2018). Transformations in destination texture: Curry and Bollywood romance in the Swiss Alps. Tourist Studies, 18(3), 292–314.

Hernández-Mogollón, J. M., Duarte, P. A., & Folgado-Fernández, J. A. (2018). The contribution of cultural events to the formation of the cognitive and affective images of a tourist destination. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 170–178.

Hewison, R. (1987). The heritage industry: Britain in a climate of decline. London, England: Methuen.

Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, NY: McGrawHill.

Io, M. (2018). Collaboration between practitioners and public agencies in preserving and promoting musical heritage in Macao. Journal of Heritage Tourism. Retrieved from 10.1080/1743873X.2018.1452248

Jamal, T., & Robinson, M. (2009). Introduction. In T. Jamal & M. Robinson (Ed.),The Sage handbook of tourism studies (pp. 1–3). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Kaspar, C. (1996). Tourismus in Grundniss (5th ed.) Bern, Switzerland: Paul Haupt.

Kim, H., Lee, S., Uysal, M., Lim, J., & Ahn, K. (2015). Nature based tourism: Motivation and subjective well-being. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 32(1), 1–21.

Libang, M., Wenjuan, C., & Jinghui, Q. (2018). Coordinated evaluation and development model of oasis urbanization from the perspective of new urbanization. Sustainable Cities and Society, 39, 78–92.

Lickorish, L. J., & Jenkins C. L. (1997). An introduction to tourism. Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heineman.

Mason, P. (2015). Impacts, planning and management. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

MacCannell, D. (1993). Empty meeting grounds: The tourist papers. London, England: Routledge. McIntosh, R.W., & Goeldner, R. (1986). Tourism: Principles, practices and philosophies. New York, NY: Wiley.

McIntosh, R.W., & Goeldner, R. (1986). Tourism: Principles, practices and philosopies. New York, NY: Wiley.

McKercher, B., & Du Cros, H. (2002). The partnership between tourism and cultural heritage management. New York, NY: Haworth.

Mieczkowski, Z. (1990). World trends in tourism and recreation. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Planina, J., & Mihalič T. (2002). Ekonomika turizma. Ljubljana: Ekonomska fakulteta.

Reisinger, Y. (1994). Tourist-host contact as a part of cultural tourism. World Leisure & Recreation, 36(2), 24–28.

Richards, G. (1996). Cultural tourism in Europe. Wallingford, England: CABI.

Richards, G. (2003). What is cultural tourism? Retrieved from

Richards, G. (2018). Cultural tourism: A review of recent research and trends. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 36, 12–21.

Richards, G., & Wilson, J. (2006). Developing creativity in tourist experiences:A solution to the serial reproduction of culture? Tourism Management, 27(6), 1209–1223.

Rohrscheidt, A. M. V. (2008). Cultural tourism: Concerning the definition. Turystyca Kulturowa, 1, 46–62.

Silberberg, T. (1995). Cultural tourism and business opportunities for museums and heritage sites. Tourism Management, 16(5), 361-365.

Smith, M., & Richards,G. (Eds.) (2013). The Routledge handbook of cultural tourism. London, England: Routledge.

Su, Y., & Teng, W. (2018). Contemplating museums’ service failure: Extracting the service quality dimensions of museums from negative on-line reviews. Tourism Management, 69, 214–222.

Schweitzer, C. (1999). The hot ticket to coollneetings. Association Management 51(8), 121–130.

Tiberghien, G. (2018). Managing the planning and development of authentic eco-cultural tourism in Kazakhstan. Tourism Planning & Development. Retrieved from 21568316.2018.1501733

Tiberghien, G., Bremner, H., & Milne, S. (2018). Authenticating eco-cultural tourism in Kazakhstan: A supply side perspective. Journal of Ecotourism, 17(3), 306–319.

Tomlinson, J. (1991). Cultural imperialism: A critical introduction. London, England: Pinter.

Tylor, E. B. (1871). Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, language, art and custom. London, England: Murray.

Urry, J. (1990). The tourist gaze: Leisure and travel in contemporary societies. London, England: Sage.

Vanhove, N. (2005). The Economics of tourism destinations. London, England: Elsevier.

Vinodan, A., & Meera, S. (2018). Exploring the relevance of cultural resource management: A case study of Kalaripayattu. Journal of Heritage Management, 3(1), 71–86.

Yang, L. (2018). Cultural tourism in a replicated old town: Tourists’ views. Tourism Planning & Development. Retrieved from https://

Yu, T., & Xu, H. (2018). Moral gaze at literary places: Experiencing ‘being the first to worry and the last to enjoy’ at Yueyang Tower in China. Tourism Management, 65, 292–302.

Wallace, G., & Russell, A. (2004). Eco-cultural tourism as a means for the sustainable development of culturally marginal and environmentally sensitive regions. Tourist Studies, 4(3), 235–254.

Wei, L., Qian, J., & Sun, J. (2018). Self-orientalism, joke-work and host-tourist relation. Annals of Tourism Research, 68, 89–99.

Wijayanti, A., & Damanik, J. (2018). Analysis of the tourist experience of management of a heritage tourism product: Case study of the Sultan Palace of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Journal of Heritage Tourism. Retrieved from 1743873X.2018.1494182

UNWTO. (1985). The state’s role in protecting and promoting culture as a factor in tourism development and the proper use and exploitation of the national cultural heritage of sites and monuments for tourists. Madrid, Spain: World Travel Organization.

UNWTO. (1993). Recommendations on tourism statistics. Madrid, Spain: World Travel Organization.

UNWTO. (2017, 15 January). 2017 international tourism results: The highest in seven years. Retrieved from http://media.unwto. org/press-release/2018-01-15/2017-international-tourism-results-highest-seven-years

UNWTO. (2018). Tourism and culture synergies. Madrid, Spain: World Travel Organization.

World Travel & Tourism Council. (2017). Travel and tourism economic impact 2017: World. Retrieved from https://www.wttc. org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/regions-2017/world2017.pdf

Zeppel, H. (1992). Cultural tourism in Australia: A growing travel trend. Townsville, Australia: James Cook University.

Zeppell, H., and Hall, C. M. (1991). Selling art and history: Cultural heritage and tourism. Journal of Tourism Studies, 2(1), 29–45.




How to Cite

Orel Frank, T., & Medaric, Z. (2019). Cultural Tourism from an Academic Perspective. Academica Turistica - Tourism and Innovation Journal, 11(2). Retrieved from