A Theoretical Positioning of Self and Social Identities as Antecedents in Cultural-Experiential Tourism

Atanu Nath, Parmita Saha

Abstract


Museums are often regarded as a cultural destination, however they stand distinct from other purveyors of culture in that they consciously attempt at a less pronounced social and cognitive dissonance among the audience it covets. In their strife for continuity as an overarching goal, museums by necessity have moved away from being torchbearers of heritage and interpretive centers thereof, to being experiential centers and thus facing challenges associated with a duality of roles. Conscious democratization and integration efforts to draw in the masses require commensurate marketing strategies, while at the same time museums strive to offer an experience that is in effect personal. It is our contention that museums offer a unique and valuable opportunity for theoretical and empirical work in tourism consumer behavior research. To such end, this research reviews the constructs identity seeking (selfidentity), identity projection (social identity) as determinants of motivation in cultural experiential tourism. Motivation is considered along the dimensions of reflective and recreational motivation. A theoretical framework of relationship between identity and motivation to explain pre and post visitation attitude formation and behavioral intention in cultural experiential tourism is proposed, along with methodological notes on pursuant empirical research to validate the framework.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abratt, R., & Kleyn, N. (2012). Corporate identity, corporate branding and corporate reputations: Reconciliation and integration. European Journal of Marketing, 46(7/8), 1048–1063.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, ma: Addison-Wesley.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84(5), 888–918.

Alexandris, K., Tsorbatzoudis, C., & Grouios, G. (2002). Perceived constraints on recreational sport participation: Investigating their relationship with intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(3), 233–252.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1992). The self-regulation of attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55(2), 178–204.

Baker, D. A., & Crompton, J. L. (2000). Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 785–804.

Baloglu, S., & Uysal, M. (1996). Market segments of push and pull motivations: A canonical correlation approach. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 8(3), 32–38.

Biddle, B. J., Bank, B. J., & Slavings, R. L. (1987). Norms, preferences, identities and retention decisions. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50(4), 322–337.

Biddle, B. J., Bank, B. J., Anderson, D. S., Hauge, R., Keats, D. M., Keats, J. A., . . . Valantin, S. (1985). Social influence, self-referent identity labels, and behavior. Sociological Quarterly, 26(2), 159–185.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. American Psychologist, 32, 513–531.

Bruner, J., & Kalmar, D. A. (1998). Narrative and metanarrative in the construction of self. In M. D. Ferrari & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Self-awareness: Its nature and development (pp. 308–331). New York, ny: Guilford Press.

Chan, T. W., & Goldthorpe, J. H. (2005). The social stratification of theatre, dance and cinema attendance. Cultural Trends, 14(3), 193–212.

Craik, J. (1995). Are there cultural limits to tourism? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 3(2), 87–98.

Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408–424.

Crompton, J. L., & McKay, S. L. (1997). Motives of visitors attending festival events. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 425–439.

Cronin, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1992). Measuring service quality: A reexamination and extension. Journal of Marketing, 56(3), 55–68.

Cunnell, D., & Prentice, R. (2000). Tourists’ recollections of quality in museums: A servicescape without people? Museum Management and Curatorship, 18(4), 369–390.

Decrop, A., Pizam, A., & Mansfeld, Y. (2000). Consumer behavior in travel and tourism. New York, ny: The Haworth Hospitality Press.

Falk, J. H. (1998). Visitors – who does, who doesn’t, and why (why people go to museums). Museum News, 77(2), 38– 43.

Falk, J. H. (2006). An identity-centered approach to understanding museum learning. Curator: The Museum Journal, 49(2), 151–166.

Falk, J. H. (2013). Understanding visitors’ motivations and learning. In I. Lundgaard Braendolt & J. T. Jensen (Eds.), Museums social learning spaces and knowledge producing processes (pp. 106–127). Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Agency for Culture.

Falk, J., Heimlich, J., & Bronnenkant, K. (2008). Using identity-related visit motivations as a tool for understanding adult zoo and aquarium visitors’ meaning-making. Curator: The Museum Journal, 51(1), 55–79.

Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class: And how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York, ny: Basic Books.

Gleason, P. (1983). Identifying identity? A semantic history. The Journal of American History, 69(4), 910–931.

Gnoth, J. (1997). Tourism motivation and expectation formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 283–304.

Goulding, C. (2000). The museum environment and the visitor experience. European Journal of Marketing, 34(3/4), 261–278.

Herbert, D. (2001). Literary places, tourism, and the heritage experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(2), 312–333.

Hood, M. (1983). Staying away: Why people choose not to visit a museum. Museum News, 61(4), 50–57.

Housen, A. (1987). Three methods for understanding museum audiences. Museum Studies Journal, 2(4), 41–49.

Iso-Ahola, S. E., & Allen, J. R. (1982). The dynamics of leisure motivation: The effects of outcome on leisure needs. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 53(2), 141–149.

Jiang, L., & Xu, H. (2017). The growth of literary places in ancient town tourism destinations: Based on the theories of Bourdieu, Danto and Dickie. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 15(3), 213–228.

Kelly, R. (1985). Museums as status symbols 2: Obtaining a state of having been there. In R. Belk (Ed.), Advances in non-profit marketing (pp. 1–38). Greenwich, ct: jai Press.

Kotler, P., & Scheff, J. (1997). Standing room only: Strategies nfor marketing the performing arts. Boston, ma: Harvard Business School Press.

Lam, T., & Hsu, C. H. C. (2004). Theory of planned behavior: Potential travelers from China. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 28(4), 463–482.

Lam, T., & Hsu, C. H. C. (2006). Predicting behavioral intention of choosing a travel destination. Tourism Management, 27(4), 589–599.

Lundberg, D. E. (1980). The tourist business. Boston, ma: cbi Publishing.

Mansfeld, Y. (1992). From motivation to actual travel. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(3), 399–419.

McIntosh, A. J. (1999). Into the tourist’s mind: Understanding the value of the heritage experience. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 8(1), 41–64.

Moscardo, G., & Pearce, P. L. (1999). Understanding ethnic tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), 416–434. Netemeyer, R., Ryn, M. Van, & Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.

Nicholson, R. E., & Pearce, D. G. (2001). Why do people attend events: A comparative analysis of visitor motivations at four South Island events. Journal of Travel Research, 39(4), 449–460.

Packer, J. (2006). Learning for fun: The unique contribution of educational leisure experiences. Curator: The Museum Journal, 49(3), 329–344.

Pearce, S. (1998). Objects in the contemporary construction of personal culture: Perspectives relating to gender and socio-economic class. Museum Management and Curatorship, 17(3), 223–241.

Pine, J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Economy leadership when there is o one to ask? Welcome to the experience economy cost systems putting the enterprise into the enterprise system. Harvard Business Review, 76(4), 97–105.

Pizam, A. (2010). Creating memorable experiences. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(3), 343.

Prentice, R. (2001). Experiential cultural tourism: Museums & the marketing of the new romanticism of evoked authenticity. Museum Management and Curatorship, 19(1), 5–26.

Rao, V. (2001). Celebrations as social investments: Festival expenditures, unit price variation and social status in rural India. Journal of Development Studies, 38(1), 71–97.

Richards, G. (2011). Creativity and tourism: The state of the art. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1225–1253.

Schiffman, L. G., & Kanuk, L. L. (2004). Consumer behaviour (8th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, nj: Prentice-Hall.

Sheng, C. W., & Chen, M. C. (2012). A study of experience expectations of museum visitors. Tourism Management, 33(1), 53–60.

Slater, A. (2007). ‘Escaping to the gallery:’ Understanding the motivations of visitors to galleries. International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, 12, 149–162.

Slater, A., & Armstrong, K. (2010). Involvement, Tate, and me. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(7/8), 727–748.

Smith, W. L. (2006). Experiential tourism standards: The perceptions of rural tourism providers. International Journal of Services and Standards, 2(3), 1–23.

So Yon Lee, Petrick, J. F., & Crompton, J. (2007). The roles of quality and intermediary constructs in determining festival attendees’ behavioral intention. Journal of Travel Research, 45(4), 402–412.

Šola, T. (1992). The future of museums and the role of museology. Museum Management and Curatorship, 11(4), 393–400.

Song, H., You, G., Reisinger, Y., Lee, C., & Lee, S. (2014). Behavioral intention of visitors to an Oriental medicine festival? An extended model of goal directed behavior. Tourism Management, 42, 101–113.

Sparks, P., & Shepherd, R. (1992). Self-identity and the theory of planned behavior? Assesing the role of identification with ‘green consumerism.’ Social Psychology Quarterly, 55(4), 388–399.

Stam, D. C. (1993). The informed muse: The implications of ‘the new museology’ for museum practice. Museum Management and Curatorship, 12(3), 267–283.

Stebbins, R. A. (1997). Identity and cultural tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 450–452.

Taheri, B., Jafari, A., & O’Gorman, K. (2014). Keeping your audience: Presenting a visitor engagement scale. Tourism Management, 42, 321–329.

Tung, V.W. S., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2011). Exploring the essence of memorable tourism experiences. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1367–1386.

Um, S., & Crompton, J. L. (1990). Attitude determinants in tourism destination choice. Annals of Tourism Research,

(3), 432–448.

Weil, S. E. (2000). Transformed from a cemetery of bric-abrac. In B. Sheppard (Ed.), Perspectives on outcome based evaluation for libraries and museums (pp. 4–15). Washington, dc: Institute of Museum and Library Services.

Woodside, A. G., Caldwell, M., & Albers-Miller, N. D. (2004). Broadening the study of tourism. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 17(1), 1–6.

Yuan, J., & Jang, S. (2008). The effects of quality and satisfaction on awareness and behavioral intentions: Exploring the role of a wine festival. Journal of Travel Research, 46(3), 279–288.

Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 31–46.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.